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 Albumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.
 Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone.
 Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Injury to the liver results in release of the substance into the blood.
 AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found in high amounts in liver, heart, and muscle cells. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.
 BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down.
 About half of the calcium in the blood is attached to proteins, mainly albumin. For this reason, the calcium blood test can be misleading, and sometimes needs tests to confirm the result.
 Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep the proper balance of body fluids and maintain the body's acid-base balance.
 Most of the CO2 is in the form of a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate level.
 Measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work.
 Measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood.
 Measures the amount of potassium in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood. Potassium (K+) helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out of cells.
 Measures the amount of sodium in the blood.
 Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.
 Measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin.

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Reference https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003468.htm

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